By Henry Etzkowitz, Carol Kemelgor, Brian Uzzi
Why are there nonetheless so few woman scientists? regardless of the medical ethos of universalism and inclusion, ladies proceed to event actual social inequities as they fight to realize popularity within the medical group. in keeping with wide interviews and subsidized via quantitative research, this compelling paintings exposes the hidden limitations, sophisticated exclusions, and unwritten ideas that confront girls at each juncture alongside the clinical occupation path--from formative years to retirement. via shiny own bills the authors supply an illuminating and sobering view of the results those stumbling blocks have at the own lives of girls. They argue that girls can reach the clinical place of work by means of effectively coping with "social capital," these networks and relationships scientists depend on for pro aid and new rules. This benchmark quantity is essential studying for all scientists and social scientists--both male and female--and for girls contemplating a systematic profession.
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Additional info for Athena Unbound: The Advancement of Women in Science and Technology
Thus gender as a concept was created to understand ‘the social quality of distinctions between the sexes . . for the explicit purpose of creating a space in which socially mediated differences can be explored apart from biological differences’ (Hare-Mustin and Maracek, 1988). However, the concepts of sex and gender become easily entwined and socialization becomes confused with biology. Taking this a step further, ‘ . . it would be illogical to say that being male or female would, in itself, make someone a good or bad scientist.
The perception of gender does not depend on the actual situation, but rather on organizing information that makes sense of novelty. Two-year-olds without expected siblings, and therefore less exposure to doctor visits, were consistent with Piagetian developmental theory. When a child said, ‘I don’t know this person’, it indicated that there were no available mental concepts whatsoever which reﬂected the attributes in the photograph. Therefore the child could make no interpretation of the photograph.
S. universities young women are disproportionately removed from science and engineering majors by a harsh ‘weed-out’ system designed to test the mettle of young males, well socialized in the norms of competition. Nevertheless, some women, looking back, report a positive experience of being mentored as undergraduates. Despite the increased entry of women into science, opposition to their full participation continues. Implicitly ‘male’ standards of behavior permeate scientiﬁc time and space, including a belief that a researcher is most productive when their time is devoted to investigation to the virtual exclusion of all other aspects of life.
Athena Unbound: The Advancement of Women in Science and Technology by Henry Etzkowitz, Carol Kemelgor, Brian Uzzi