Download e-book for iPad: Logic, language, and meaning vol.2: Intensional logic and by L. T. F. Gamut

By L. T. F. Gamut

ISBN-10: 0226280888

ISBN-13: 9780226280882

Although the 2 volumes of Logic, Language, and that means can be used independently of each other, jointly they supply a complete assessment of recent common sense because it is used as a device within the research of common language. either volumes supply workouts and their solutions.

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Additional info for Logic, language, and meaning vol.2: Intensional logic and logical grammar

Example text

Accordingly, by the correlation between world and mind/language, so can their significations, that is, there is a matching division of singular and general natures. We then get hierarchies of terms that can be ordered in a so-called Porphyrian tree: 26 HISTORY OF LOGIC: MEDIEVAL Substance Corporeal Incorporeal Body Sensible Insensible Animal Rational Irrational Rational Animal Mortal Immortal Man Sortes Plato With respect to such trees, we encounter reasonings based on predications: Sortes is a man, and man is a rational animal.

Therefore: Sortes is a living body. Apparently, predication is transitive when climbing in a Porphyrian tree: what is predicated of a predicate of a subject, can be predicated also of the original subject. However, not all categorical predication is transitive: the two premises Sortes is a man and Man is a sort, obviously, do not allow for the nonsensical conclusion Sortes is a sort. In order to account for the failure of transitivity in the case of iterated predication, contemporary logical semantics relies only on a (meager) reference relation, both relata of which, namely, the expression and its reference, are construed as things.

The first of these recalls the argument of On Interpretation 9. ’ His view here conflicts directly with Aristotle, who asserts that there are possibilities that never become actual. What Diodorus may have been doing, in addition to defending a Megarian view of universal necessitation, was finding a way to talk about possibilities in a Megarian view of the world. That is, his position would allow him to assert that there is indeed a meaning for the word ‘possible,’ even though nothing can happen except what does happen.

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Logic, language, and meaning vol.2: Intensional logic and logical grammar by L. T. F. Gamut


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