By Dennis L. Feucht
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Extra info for Transistor Amplifiers
IC packages with smaller pin pitches are common but harder to solder using a soldering iron. SOICs can be soldered (by most persons) with an Antex iron and standard iron tip. Smaller tips are available for smaller pitches. The pinouts are the same between DIP and SOIC parts. A variable voltage supply can be used (as before) for VI and a DMM to measure gain: v Av O v I Compared to the calculated gain based on op-amp feedback theory, the agreement between calculated and measured values should be very good.
The emitter current sources, I0 , do not appear in the incremental circuit model because they are static (constant-current) sources (as is VCC, a static voltage source). Constant-current sources are opened and constant-voltage sources are shorted in the incremental model. A current source has no change in current for a change in voltage across it. Then Δv/Δi ∞Ω, an open circuit. Likewise, a change in current from a voltage source does not change its voltage: Δv/Δi = 0 Ω, a short circuit. Thus for incremental models, independent current sources are opened and independent voltage sources are shorted.
The G transfer function follows from the op-amp transfer function: vo K (v ivi ) K (0 V vi ) K vE Then G = vo/vE = –K. Substituting these transfer functions into the feedback formula, the closed-loop voltage gain is vo G Ti To vi 1 G H closed-loop Av or Rf Av R R f i K 1 Ri 1 ( K ) R R i f Simplifying the algebra, this becomes K Rf Av R f (1 K ) Ri Now divide numerator and denominator by 1/K and let K go to infinity, keeping in mind that as K gets larger, 1/K goes to zero in the limit.
Transistor Amplifiers by Dennis L. Feucht